The nitrogen cycle (also known as the biological cycle) is extremely important for keeping your aquarium life alive. Read this before adding any fish!

You should understand this process if you want to start a successful aquarium!

The aquarium nitrogen cycle has different names for this process, it can be called the biological cycle, the nitrification process, new tank syndrome or even the start-up cycle. These all refer to the same cycle – The Nitrogen Cycle. A very important cycle is the establishment of beneficial bacteria in the aquarium and in the filter media that will help in the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and then the conversion of nitrite to nitrates.

The Marineland Eclipse 12 contains a built-in patented BIO-Wheel® wet/dry biological filter media system. Within time the BIO-Wheel® will create beneficial bacteria that need to grow, flourish and remove ammonia.

The aquarium nitrogen cycle process can take from 14 days to 8 weeks or longer to complete. It’s important for anyone in beginning an aquarium to understand this process. Understanding this process will help you be successful in keeping fish and it should definitely improve your chances of keeping healthy fish for saltwater or freshwater. The best way to monitor the nitrogen cycle is to purchase an aquarium test kit that will test for ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and ph.

Water Test Frequency

Test your aquarium water every other day and write down your readings. You will first see ammonia levels rising. A few weeks or so later you should see the nitrite levels rising and the ammonia levels dropping. Finally, after a few more weeks you should see the nitrate levels rising and the nitrite levels dropping. When you no longer detect ammonia or nitrites but you can detect nitrates you can assume that it is safe to add your tropical fish.

The Aquarium Cycling Process

Photo Credit: Ilmari Karonen

Nitrogen Cycle Stages

Stage 1 – Ammonia is introduced into the aquarium via tropical fish waste and uneaten food. The tropical fish waste and excess food will break down into either ionized ammonium or un-ionized ammonia. Ammonium is not harmful to tropical fish but ammonia is. Whether the material turns into ammonium or ammonia depends on the ph level of the water. If the ph is under 7, you will have ammonium. If the ph is 7 or higher you will have ammonia.

Stage 2 – Bacteria called nitrosomonas will develop and they will oxidize the ammonia in the tank, essentially eliminating it. The byproduct of ammonia oxidation is Nitrites. So we no longer have ammonia in the tank, but we now have another toxin to deal with – Nitrites. Nitrites are just as toxic to tropical fish as ammonia. If you have a test kit, you should be able to see the nitrite levels rise around the end of the first or second week.

Stage 3 – Bacteria called nitrobacter will develop and they will convert the nitrites into nitrates. Nitrates are not as harmful to tropical fish as ammonia or nitrites, but nitrate is still harmful in large amounts. The quickest way to rid your aquarium of nitrates is to perform partial water changes. Once your tank is established you will need to monitor your tank water for high nitrate levels and perform partial water changes as necessary. There are other methods to control nitrates in aquariums besides water changes. For freshwater fish tanks, live aquarium plants will use up some of the nitrates. In saltwater fish tanks, live rock and deep sand beds can have anaerobic areas where denitrifying bacteria can breakdown nitrates into harmless nitrogen gas that escapes through the water surface of the aquarium.

Getting The Nitrogen Cycle Started

There are two ways to get the aquarium cycle started, either with fish or without fish.

Starting The Nitrogen Cycle With Fish

This is not the preferred way to get the nitrogen cycle started because the fish are being exposed to ammonia and nitrites during this process. Many fish can not and will not make it through the cycling process. Often times the fish become stressed and fish disease starts to break out.

Certain species are hardier than others and seem to tolerate the start-up cycle better than others. For freshwater tanks, the zebra danio is a very hardy fish that many use to get the nitrogen cycle started. For saltwater tanks, some have reported success using damselfishto get the process started. Again, using fish to cycle is not a good idea and you may be throwing your money (on dead fish) out the window.

Starting The Nitrogen Cycle Fishless

There are a few different ways to get this process started. To easily get an ammonia reading from your tank water try the Seachem Ammonia Alert. It sticks inside the tank and has a circle that changes color depending on the ammonia levels in the tank.

  • Option 1:
    Use a small piece of raw fish or a raw shrimp
    Drop a 2 inch by 1 inch chunk of raw fish or a raw shrimp into the tank, just be mindful of how many gallons your tank is, if its a small tank use smaller pieces. As the shrimp decomposes it will release ammonia into the tank.
  • Option 2:
    Use 100% pure ammonia.
    Using a dropper, add 5 drops of ammonia per 10 gallons of aquarium water. If you don’t get an ammonia reading with your test kit, add some more drops until you start to see an ammonia reading. Keep track of how many drops you’ve used so you can repeat this process daily. Continue to dose the tank with ammonia until you start to get nitrite readings with your test kit. Once you can detect nitrites you should only add 3 drops of ammonia per 10 gallons of aquarium water, or if you added more drops originally to get an ammonia reading cut the amount of drops used in half. Continue this process daily until you get nitrate readings with your test kit. Do a 30% water change and your tank is ready.
  • Option 3:
    Use gravel and/or filter media from an established and cycled tank
    This is the best and fastest way to go. This will seed the tank with all of the necessary bacteria for the nitrogen cycle. “Feed” the tank daily with flake food until you are getting nitrate readings. Depending on how fast you were able to get the gravel and filter media into your tank, you may be getting nitrate readings in only a day or two. There are some drawbacks to this method. Ask your source if they have recently used any copper medications in the tank. If they have and you are planning to have invertebrates in the tank you should probably not use this method. Invertebrates will not tolerate copper. Get a copper test kit to determine if it’s safe to use.
  • Option 4:
    Using live rock in Saltwater Tanks
    The use of live rock in saltwater tanks has really taken off over the past few years. The reason for this is because it is one of the best forms of biological filtration available for saltwater tanks. The shape the rock is in when you get it will determine how long the nitrogen cycle will take.
  • Option 5:
    Use a product such as the listed below to begin the aquarium nitrogen cycle:
  • Tetra SafeStart is a bacteria culture product with live nitrifying bacteria that works instantly to remove ammonia and nitrite. Patented formula helps to seed your aquarium filter with nitra-digesting bacteria. Shelf stable liquid requires no refrigeration.
  • Use Instant Ocean BIO-Spira for Saltwater Tanks made by Marineland. This product claims to contain some patent pending species of nitrifying bacteria that will cycle your tank in 24 hours. It is kind of expensive, but if you already have fish in your tank and they are suffering through the cycle, you may want to check this stuff out. 1 ounce of this product is supposed to treat a 30 gallon freshwater tank. There are both freshwater and saltwater versions of Bio-spira.
  • Another great product is Prime. Dosing with Prime will reduce ammonia levels down while the cycle is stabilizing. It will remove chlorine, chloramine and ammonia. Just note this is not a bacteria culture to start with, just an aid in reducing ammonia.
Once the aquarium nitrogen cycle has started only add one or two fish at a time. Wait a couple of weeks before adding more fish. This will give your tank the time it needs to catch up with the increased bio-load.

Speeding Up the Cycling Process

There are things you can do to speed along the process of cycling your aquarium.

  • You can Increase the temperature of the aquarium water to 80°F-82°F (27°C-28°C).
  • You can provide some beneficial bacteria colonies by getting gravel or sand from an established and cycled aquarium. If you have another tank with an extra filter you can use that as well as it well have beneficial bacteria established. If you have a buddy with an established and cycled aquarium, ask if you can have one of their used filter media. It will be loaded with the good bacteria that we need to help cycle the aquarium.
  • There are products on the market that claim to introduce beneficial bacteria into a new aquarium. For more information, check out products like Bio-spira and Tetra SafeStart. There are many more products entering the market that contain the beneficial bacteria necessary to seed your tank. Between live rock (for saltwater aquariums) and the bottled bacteria being readily available, there really is no excuse to make fish suffer through a cycle.

The aquarium nitrogen cycle is very important for a healthy environment for your aquarium life. Work consistently at it and you will be rewarded with a healthy aquarium fish tank with thriving life.